This may seem like an obvious tip to many, but I’ve seen a few applications for automated tester roles at my company that fail to do this. When creating methods that interact with elements on a web page, remember to use Selenium WebDriver’s By locators.
These By locators are super versatile, and will allow you to have one method that deals with any element that can be located.
So what happens when we stop using By and try to pass other things to our methods instead? We get in situations like this:
Notice how each of the elements we interact with inside the clickElementAndGetText method is limited to being located via their ID? This limits where we can use this method quite extremely. The only application is where both elements we want to use can be located via an ID. What if one has to be located via its html tag instead? Well we can’t use this method to do that. We could make another method that changes the last findElement call to use By.tagName instead, but think about how many methods you would have to create to accomplish all the possible combinations of element location strategies!
Instead, just make your methods pass By locators around.
Look how versatile this method is when the location strategies are decided outside of the method and passed in as arguments!
Hopefully you already know the importance of using the Page Object Model to keep your code organised. To keep your code maintainable it’s a good practice to have page objects inherit from a single abstract “BasePage” object. This allows us to have one central place that defines general actions that our pages can perform, and allows our concrete pages to inherit those behaviours, such as:
- Finding elements
- Clicking elements
- Checking whether an element is present
- Waiting for an element to become present
- Filling in text fields
- Selecting items from select lists
But these are all things you can access through the WebDriver API itself right? Yes, but to help write more readable and maintainable code it’s good to limit how much we make direct calls to the WebDriver API. It’s better to have methods that you directly control, that will allow you to make broad changes really easily if they become necessary.
For example, if a new version of Firefox is released that for some reason breaks WebDriver’s ability to know whether a page is ready or not, it’s much easier to fix that in your code by altering your “findElement” method to first wait for that element to be present before trying to use it. This kind of event tends to be few and far between, but it saves a lot of time versus refactoring the hundreds of driver.findElement calls you’ve got littered throughout your code.
This is our abstract BasePage class, containing a couple of simple methods that allow us to make very quick alterations to every base action that we take in our framework.
When we make a concrete page object, we extend from BasePage:
We now have a simple system for sharing a set of common actions between all of our page objects. If we have to change the way we do things down the line, it’s now a one or two line change, rather than hours of work.
When we want to interact with the page, we create an instance of LoginPage and pass in our WebDriver instance: